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Susan Wojcicki Steps Down As YouTube CEO With Neal Mohan Set To Take Over



Key takeaways

  • Susan Wojcicki is stepping down as the CEO of YouTube, naming Neal Mohan, YouTube’s current chief product officer, as her successor
  • Under Wojcicki’s leadership, YouTube roughly doubled its number of average daily users
  • With developments in AI and a Supreme Court case set to take place this year, Alphabet is going through a period of significant change

In an article shared on the YouTube Official Blog, Susan Wojcicki announced that she would be stepping down as CEO. Wojcicki served as the CEO for the last nine years and worked at parent company Google for 25. Neal Mohan, YouTube’s chief product officer, will replace her.

We’ll discuss changes at YouTube throughout Wojcicki’s tenure as CEO, plus look at the company’s recent financial performance and what shareholders should know moving forward. If you’re interested in investing in tech companies like Alphabet, consider downloading

Susan Wojcicki steps down

On February 16, Susan Wojcicki announced she’d be stepping down as YouTube’s CEO. This marked the end of 25 years for Wojcicki at YouTube’s parent company, Google. During that time, she co-created Google Image Search, led Google’s first Video and Book search and helped create AdSense.

Wojcicki also wrote to employees that working at the company had felt “exhilarating, meaningful and all-consuming.” Though Wojcicki plans to keep an advisory role across Google and Alphabet, she shared that she’ll be stepping back to focus on her personal life, health and other projects.


Wojcicki was Big Tech’s only female CEO, making her departure bittersweet to many. She leaves a mixed legacy with YouTube content creators, many of whom were frustrated by her support for removing dislike buttons from YouTube. Other creators took issue with YouTube’s automated flagging and demonetization policies under her leadership, including many LGBT creators who accused YouTube’s machine-learning technology of bias.

At the same time, Wojcicki took significant steps to combat disinformation on YouTube and helped grow the platform extensively. The number of daily users has approximately doubled since Wojcicki took the helm at YouTube, and new offerings like a music streaming service and YouTube TV have increased its range of content.

Neal Mohan prepares to take the reigns

Neal Mohan, YouTube’s chief product officer since 2015, will take over for Wojcicki as CEO. Wojcicki said in her message to employees that she’d worked with Mohan for 15 years, “first when he came over to Google with the DoubleClick acquisition in 2007 and as his role grew to become SVP of Display and Video Ads.”

Since joining YouTube’s team, many have credited Mohan with helping launch exciting products like YouTube Premium and Shorts. Wojcicki also credits Mohan with leading YouTube’s Trust and Safety team, “ensuring that YouTube lives up to its responsibility as a global platform.”

Mohan is a strong choice for a successor, especially considering his role in making YouTube Shorts competitive with recent challenger TikTok. Wojcicki plans to support Mohan throughout the transition.

Alphabet (GOOGL) financials

Alphabet announced its fourth-quarter earnings earlier this month, reporting a miss on both top and bottom lines. Revenue came in at around $76 billion, a year-over-year increase of only 1% compared to 32% in the fourth quarter of 2021. YouTube revenue also missed analyst expectations, coming in at $7.96 billion compared to the previous year’s $8.63 billion.

Google announced cuts of approximately 12,000 jobs in January of this year and expects costs related to employee severance to run between $1.9 and $2.3 billion. The company will recognize most of these expenses in the first quarter of 2023.

Analysts anticipate headwinds for Google as it announced plans to optimize its global office space. It’s likely that Google will invest heavily in artificial intelligence (AI) this year to remain competitive with the release of ChatGPT and Microsoft’s integration of the chatbot with Bing.

Alphabet decided to start monetizing YouTube Shorts this month, bringing revenue sharing to the product, which has grown in average daily views from 30 billion to 50 billion across 2022. Alphabet CEO Sundar Pichai mentioned YouTube’s NFL Sunday Ticket as another offering that will hopefully bring more people to the platform.

The Gonzalez Case and SCOTUS

Gonzalez v. Google LLC is a court case that will appear before the Supreme Court this term and could impact Alphabet and the internet. The case deals with computer services that make targeted recommendations, like YouTube, and situations when these recommendations unintentionally promote terrorism-related content hosted on the service.

If a recommender system can be held liable for promoting dangerous content to users and Google isn’t immunized under Section 230(c)(1) of the Communications Decency Act, it could significantly shift the operations of a service like YouTube.

Arguments for this case are scheduled to begin on February 21, 2023. We’ll continue to follow this case and its results.

What does this mean for investors?

The leadership changes at YouTube have Alphabet’s shareholders wondering if the platform can start contributing more substantially to the company’s revenue. Furthermore, the pending court ruling has investors questioning what the future holds for advertisers in the emerging tech sector if the Supreme Court doesn’t rule in Google’s favor.

Mohan’s experience in advertising for Google and his background in launching new products for YouTube may bode well for investors who are hoping YouTube will do more to contribute to Alphabet’s bottom line. However, YouTube is just one facet of Alphabet’s financials, and its overall impact is small compared to Google Search and Google Advertising.

The bigger issue at play seems to be the pending court case. If Google loses the case and there is a complete overhaul of Section 230, profits from advertising could decline due to the need to filter content to avoid promoting dangerous messages.

If you’re an investor interested in the tech world but are nervous about cases like Gonzalez, consider downloading today. uses Investment Kits like the Emerging Tech Kit to let you invest in the fields that interest you. Plus, you can turn on Portfolio Protection to protect your gains from risky headline events.

The bottom line

YouTube CEO Susan Wojcicki is stepping down after nine years with the video-sharing platform and 25 years at its parent company, Google. Neal Mohan will replace Wojcicki, hoping to help reinvigorate Alphabet’s earnings by boosting YouTube’s revenue.

Alphabet is facing many challenges as technology continues to advance and legal proceedings get underway. Time will tell if the company can get back on track.

Download today for access to AI-powered investment strategies.


Bonds See 2023 Recession, Stocks Aren’t So Sure



The yield curve is one of the most robust recession predictors and has signaled a recession may be coming since mid 2022. In contrast, U.S. stocks as measured by the S&P 500 are up materially from the lows of last October and only just below year-to-date highs, seemingly rejecting recession fears. Yet, fixed income markets see the Fed potentially cutting rates by the summer, perhaps reacting to a U.S. recession.

The Evidence From The Bond Markets

The recessionary evidence, at least from fixed income markets, is mounting. The 10 yield Treasury yield has been below the 2 year yield consistently since last July. That is is called an inverted yield curve and has signaled a recession fairly reliably when compared to other leading indicators.

Building on that, fixed income markets see almost a nine in ten chance that the Federal Reserve cuts rates by September of this year. That’s something the Fed has repeatedly said they won’t do on their current forecasts. Yet, a recession could cause it to happen.

The Stock Market

In contrast, the stock market shows some optimism. The S&P 500 is up 7% year-to-date as the market has shrugged off fears of contagion from recent banking issues. In particular, tech stocks have rallied.

In contrast, more defensive sectors such as healthcare, utilities and consumer goods have lagged in 2023. This suggests that the stock market is taking more of a ‘risk on’ position and is perhaps less worried about the economy.


That said the stock market is a leading indicator of the business cycle, it may be that stocks see a recession, but are now looking past it to growth ahead and are factoring in the lower discount rates that a recession might bring as interest rates decline. Also, the U.S. stock market is relatively global, so the fate of the U.S. economy is a key factor in driving profits, but not the only one.

What’s Next?

Monitoring unemployment data will be key. Though the yield curve is a good long-term forecaster of recessions it is less precise in signaling when a recession starts. Unemployment rates can offer more accurate recession timing. Unemployment edged up in February, suggesting a recession may be near, but we’ve also seen monthly noise unemployment. Two similar monthly unemployment spikes during 2022 both proved false alarms.

However, if we see a sustained move up in unemployment from the low levels of 2022 that may be a relatively clear sign that a recession is here. Economist Claudia Sahm estimates that a sustained 0.5% increase in unemployment rate from 12-month lows is sufficient to trigger a recession. Unemployment rose 0.2% from January to February 2023, so maybe we’re on the way there. Of course, the jobs market performed better than expected in 2022 and it could do so again. Still, fixed income markets do suggest a 2023 recession is coming. Stock markets don’t necessarily share that view.

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Which States Have The Highest And Lowest Life Expectancies?



There’s a wide variance of life expectancies among the 50 states in the U.S., according to a recent report prepared by Assurance, an insurance technology platform that helps consumers with decisions related to insurance and financial well-being.

Figure 1 below shows the 10 states with the highest life expectancy, starting with Hawaii, the state with the highest life expectancy.

Figure 2 below shows the 10 states with the lowest life expectancy, starting with Mississippi, the state with the lowest life expectancy.

Assurance scoured life expectancy data prepared in January 2023 by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). With this data, Assurance created several easy-to-understand graphics that offer information about life expectancies.

Life expectancies are a basic measure of well-being

As measured by the CDC, life expectancies are a basic measurement of well-being in a broad population and not a prediction of how long an individual might live. The CDC measures the expected lifespan for a person born in the year of measurement. This measurement is calculated based on the assumption that the individual will live and die according to the rates of death that are prevalent in the measurement year for each age. There’s no assumed improvement or backsliding in the assumed mortality rates in future years for each age in the life expectancy calculation.


By contrast, an estimated lifespan for an individual would consider their current age, their gender, and some basic lifestyle information. It might also attempt to project future improvements or backsliding in mortality rates based on key factors.

Significant influences on life expectancy calculations

Leading causes of death in the U.S. are heart disease, cancer, and accidents in that order. These immediate causes are significantly influenced by factors in the population such as poverty rates, educational attainment, rates of obesity and smoking, access to healthcare, prevalence of violent crime, and the support people receive from federal, state, and local governments. All these factors can vary widely among different states, which can be a key reason why life expectancies vary by state.

When you think about it, all these factors also have the potential to influence a person’s quality of life. The measured life expectancy rate rolls up all these factors into one objective measurement of well-being that’s based on population data.

In addition to the factors listed above, mortality rates increased and life expectancies decreased in the past few years due to the Covid-19 pandemic. A recent article titled “Live Free And Die” summarized recent research results that show that life expectancies in most countries around the world rebounded after the Covid-19 pandemic but that they continued to decline in the United States. Many of the reasons cited in the article for the continued decline in U.S. life expectancies are the same or similar to the factors listed above.

NPR‘Live free and die?’ The sad state of U.S. life expectancy

Why should retirees care about the life expectancies reported here if these measures don’t predict your own lifespan? Life expectancy calculations indicate the general well-being of the entire population in your area. While the living conditions in your area can influence your own lifespan and quality of life, retirees should focus on their remaining life expectancy given their age. They should also consider how the factors listed above that influence life expectancies in the population might apply to them.

You can obtain customized estimates of your remaining life expectancy at the Actuaries Longevity Illustrator. Part of your planning for retirement is understanding how long you an an individual might live, instead of relying on generalized information about larger populations you see in the media.

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IRS Dirty Dozen Campaign Warns Taxpayers To Avoid Offer In Compromise ‘Mills’



Owing taxes can be stressful. Unfortunately, the actions of some companies can make it worse. As part of its “Dirty Dozen” campaign, the IRS has renewed a warning about so-called Offer in Compromise “mills” that often mislead taxpayers into believing they can settle a tax debt for pennies on the dollar—while the companies collective excessive fees.

Dirty Dozen

The “Dirty Dozen” is an annual list of common scams taxpayers may encounter. Many of these schemes peak during tax filing season as people prepare their returns or hire someone to help with their taxes. The schemes put taxpayers and tax professionals at risk of losing money, personal information, data, and more.

(You can read about other schemes on the list this year—including aggressive ERC grabs here, phishing/smishing scams here and charitable ploys here.)

Tax Debt Resolution Schemes

“Too often, we see some unscrupulous promoters mislead taxpayers into thinking they can magically get rid of a tax debt,” said IRS Commissioner Danny Werfel.

“This is a legitimate IRS program, but there are specific requirements for people to qualify. People desperate for help can make a costly mistake if they clearly don’t qualify for the program. Before using an aggressive promoter, we encourage people to review readily available IRS resources to help resolve a tax debt on their own without facing hefty fees.”


Offers In Compromise

Legitimate is a key word. Offers in Compromise are an important program to help people who can’t pay to settle their federal tax debts. But, as the IRS notes, these “mills” can aggressively promote Offers in Compromise—OIC—in misleading ways to people who don’t meet the qualifications, frequently costing taxpayers thousands of dollars.

An OIC allows you to resolve your tax obligations for less than the total amount you owe. You generally submit an OIC because you don’t believe you owe the tax, you can’t pay the tax, or
 exceptional circumstances exist.

Because of the nature of the OIC—and the dollars involved—the process can be time-consuming. It can also be confusing for taxpayers who may not have a complete grasp on their finances.

First, you must complete a detailed application, Form 656, Offer in Compromise. You must also submit Form 433-A, Collection Information Statement for Wage Earners and Self-Employed Individuals, or Form 433-B, Collection Information Statement for Businesses, with supporting documentation (generally, bank and brokerage statements and proof of expenses).

You’ll also need to submit a non-refundable fee of $205 and payment made in good faith. The payment is typically 20% of the offer amount for a lump sum cash offer or the first month’s payment for those made over time. Generally, initial payments will not be returned but will be applied to your tax debt if your offer is not accepted. Payments and fees may be waived if the OIC is submitted based solely on the premise that you do not owe the tax or if your total monthly income falls at or below income levels based on the Department of Health and Human Services (DHSS) poverty guidelines.

The IRS will examine your application and decide whether to accept it based on many things, including the total amount due and the time remaining to collect under the statute of limitations. The IRS will also review your income—including future earnings and accounts receivables—and your reasonable expenses, as determined by their formula. The IRS will also consider the amount of equity you have in assets that you own—this would include real property, personal property (like automobiles), and bank accounts.


Before your offer can be considered, you must be compliant. That means you must have filed all your tax returns and paid off any liabilities not subject to the OIC. After you submit your offer, you must continue to timely file your tax returns, and pay all required tax, including estimated tax payments. If you don’t, the IRS will return your offer.

Additionally, you cannot currently be in an open bankruptcy proceeding, and you must resolve any open audit or outstanding innocent spouse claim issues before you submit an offer.


You can probably tell—it’s a lot to consider. You may want representation. A tax professional can help marshal you through the process and offer practical guidance, while communicating what fees could look like.

By contrast, according to the IRS, an OIC “mill” will usually make outlandish claims, frequently in radio and TV ads, about how they can settle a person’s tax debt for cheap. Also telling: the fees tend to be significant in exchange for very little work.

Those mills also knowingly advise indebted taxpayers to file an OIC application even though the promoters know the person will not qualify, costing taxpayers money and time. You can check your eligibility for free using the IRS’s Offer in Compromise Pre-Qualifier tool.

“Pennies On A Dollar”

What about those promises that taxpayers can routinely settle for pennies on a dollar? Not true. Generally, the IRS will not accept an offer if they believe you can pay your tax debt in full through an installment agreement or equity in assets, including your home. That’s why the IRS tends to reject a majority of OICs that are submitted. The acceptance rate is less than 1 in 3, according to the 2021 Data Book.

The IRS will generally approve an OIC when the amount offered represents the best opportunity for the IRS to collect the debt. It’s true that there’s a formula that the IRS uses to figure out how much they think they can collect from you. But there is some wiggle room to account for special circumstances, including a loss of income or a medical condition. It’s worth noting those are the exceptions, not the rule.


While submitting an OIC may keep the IRS from calling you, it doesn’t stop all collections activities—don’t believe companies that suggest that submitting an OIC will make your tax debt disappear. Penalties and interest will continue to accrue on your outstanding tax liability. Additionally, the IRS may keep your tax refund, including interest, through the date the IRS accepts your OIC.

You may also be liened. In most cases, the IRS will file a Notice of Federal Tax Lien to protect their interests, and the lien will generally stay in place until your tax obligation is satisfied.

Be Skeptical

An OIC is a serious effort to resolve tax debt and shouldn’t be taken lightly. Be skeptical—if it sounds too good to be true, it likely is. If you’re considering an OIC, hire a competent tax professional who understands the rules and is willing to level with you about your chances of being successful—including other options. Don’t fall into a trap that can make your situation worse.

MORE FROM FORBESIRS Urges Those Hoping To Help To Beware Of Scammers Using Fake Charities

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