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Public Policy Careers: Roles, Education and Skills



If you want to work in a career that allows you to have an influence on the regulations and laws that govern industries and certain groups of people, a public policy career might be the ideal choice for you. Students who major in this field have the opportunity to gather relevant data, analyze issues, and come up with proposals for viable solutions to a wide range of issues.

A position in public policy allows you to combine data analytics, political science, and research to promote change. Read on to find out more about what some of the most popular public policy careers are, the skills that may be necessary to work in this field, the job outlook, and the average salary for these positions.

Public policy professional
photo credit: Tima Miroshnichenko / Pexels

Why Work in Public Policy?

Today, the world needs a new generation of leaders that are motivated to find the best solutions to the problems faced by societies. Leaders of businesses and non-profits, lawyers, government contractors, social entrepreneurs, consultants, and professionals in heavily regulated industries need to understand how they can influence policy and measure the impact of their programs.

A career in public policy allows you to develop the necessary skills to ask the hard questions, use data and follow the evidence to get the answers you need, and make a real, lasting impact on communities.

Public policy graduates often lead successful careers across a range of sectors in the US and worldwide. This career path can lead you to work in the public, private, and non-profit sector in a range of roles including policy advisor, program officer, financial analyst, research specialist, government officers, company director and more.

What are Careers in Public Policy?

Careers in public policy are positions that tend to be focused on informing and improving regulations and laws in order to bring about changes that benefit a community. Those who work in this field are tasked with conducting research that inspires change, solves problems, and develops solutions that can make a difference. Find out more about what can you do with a master’s in public policy from Pepperdine University.

Analyzing policies

What Skills Do You Need to Work in Public Policy?

While you will learn many job-specific skills for working in public policy during education, these roles often require a set of soft skills in order for professionals to be successful. If you are interested in a career in public policy, some of the main skills to focus on building include:

1. Critical Thinking Skills

Strong critical thinking skills allow public policy professionals to perform analysis on a variety of different proposals, understand potential outcomes for certain laws, and make the right decisions as necessary.

2. Implementation

Implementation is a skill necessary to be able to carry out any policy that you have worked on developing. This could involve forming a rollout plan through meeting with stakeholders and other involved individuals and groups.

3. Attention to Detail

Public policy career paths often involve work that requires a keen eye for detail. In these roles, the work that you do may have an influence on regulations and laws, which makes it important to be able to do due diligence.

4. Strategy

As a public policy professional, you will likely need to be able to make strategic decisions. In these roles, the ability to form strategies and advise other decision makers is hugely important.

5. Research Skills

The majority of public policy roles involve some kind of data gathering and analysis. Working in public policy requires strong research skills and an ability to perform the necessary research to advise law makers, policy makers, stakeholders, and others.

6. Communication Skills

Public policy professionals need to be excellent communicators. In these roles, professionals will often be tasked with meeting and speaking with different people from a wide range of industries. They need to have the necessary skills to clearly put information across. Public speaking is worth becoming familiar and confident with since it is often a key part of this role.

Public Policy Job Outlook

The career outlook for a career in public policy will depend on the industry that you decide to pursue. By 2029, the Us Bureau of Labor Statistics expects a 17% growth for social and community service managers and social and human service assistants.

The average salary for public policy professionals is currently around $45k per year; however, the salaries can vary a lot as there are so many different public policy positions to consider. How much you earn will depend on various factors including the field of work that you choose, your educational level, and your location.

Consulting about public policy career

How to Build a Public Policy Career

If you want to become a public policy professional, consider the following steps:

1. Consider Your Ideal Career Path

When it comes to public policy careers, there is a large variety of options that you can consider. Spend some time researching public policy career options and think about what your ideal career path looks like. This will help you choose the right educational pathway and support any additional decisions you make in terms of meeting your overall career goals.

2. Get a Bachelor’s Degree

To get your career in public policy started, you will usually need to earn a bachelor’s degree in public policy or a relevant field. While studying at this level, consider taking courses and elective modules that focus on ethics in public management, political science, policy development, economic analysis, or administrative leadership to support your future career. It is also worth considering applying for internships as a student since this will help you gain necessary experience in the field along with allowing you the opportunity to start building your professional network by connecting with professionals in the field.

3. Get Professional Certifications

It is worth spending some time exploring the different certifications that are available to you as a public policy professional. These certifications are designed to help professionals expand their knowledge and will help you build your confidence when it comes to applying for various positions as a graduate. You can find various public policy organizations that offer different certifications in each state.

4. Consider a Fellowship

It is worth considering a fellowship, which is a stipend-based work opportunity that allows you to get additional experience for your resume. Most of the time, fellowship recipients should be pursuing an advanced degree, and need to demonstrate their career ambitions in their application.

5. Join a Professional Organization

As is the case with many career paths, joining a professional organization in public policy can be an ideal way to meet and network with other professionals in the field who can provide mentorship, help you learn more about your chosen career path or write letters of recommendation for job opportunities or graduate school. There are several benefits of joining a professional organization including networking events, training, seminars, conferences, and workshops.

6. Consider an Advanced Degree

While an advanced degree is not always essential for some public policy career paths, you may consider studying at the graduate level to boost your resume and become eligible for further career opportunities. In general, a master’s degree will take around one to two years to complete. You can complete a master’s degree in public policy or opt for a relevant specialist subject such as education, local or federal government, research and development, non-profit management, and social advocacy.

Market research and analysis

Careers Available for Public Policy Graduates

The careers available to you as a public policy graduate will typically depend on your level of educational achievement and any experience you have gained in the field.

Bachelor’s Degree Graduates

If you have gained a bachelor’s degree in public policy or a relevant field, you may want to consider the following career options:

1. Market Researcher

The role of a market researcher involves using marketing trends, polls, surveys, and a variety of other methods and means to monitor trends and produce forecasts. They will usually work for organizations to help company stakeholders get a better understanding of the economy and make sure that different products and services are priced fairly while meeting customer and client demands.

2. Legislative Aide

A legislative aide is mainly responsible for assisting an elected official with performing administrative tasks. This is a supportive role that may include performing research, writing important communications, managing a calendar, taking meeting notes and more.

3. Community Relations Coordinator

The role of a community relations coordinator involves the development of programs that support members of a certain community. These professionals are tasked with finding new ways to raise awareness of various community issues, and the role also involves conducting research to learn more about the needs of community members. They will usually work closely with educators, public administration professionals, and social workers.

4. Public Affairs Specialist

A public affairs specialist forms and maintains a public image for their clients. They can work with individuals, groups, organizations, and government agencies. This role involves writing press releases, working closely with the media, creating media kits, scheduling interviews for clients, and answering media questions. They may also work on campaigns designed to increase awareness of their client and boost positive public perception.

Busy manager managing projects

Master’s Degree Graduates

With a master’s degree in public policy or a similar subject, you can move into higher-paid roles with more responsibility. Some popular roles that hire public policy professionals with an advanced degree include:

1. Regulatory Affairs Manager

This role involves the development and management of regulatory processes, particularly for government agencies. A regulatory affairs manager is responsible for monitoring budgets, submitting required paperwork to government agencies, and handling interactions with government officials.

2. Program Manager

The main responsibility of a program manager is to oversee the projects within an organization. They are responsible for ensuring that the business’s actions are in support of strategies developed by company stakeholders, and the role involves managing budgets for various programs. Program managers may also work on coordinating different projects and oversee project managers to ensure that they are effectively managing projects they are responsible for.

3. Budget Analyst

The role of a budget analyst involves assessing budgets and providing necessary budget guidance to government agencies and companies. The role involves evaluating proposals and preparing budget reports to better determine the best ways for an organization to allocate its funds.

4. Political Analyst

The role of a political analyst involves researching the pros and cons of various proposed policies. They use their findings to provide advice and guidance to stakeholders. The role involves collecting data from various sources including interviews, election results and services to evaluate various political theories and get a better understanding of trends. The role also involves making political predictions, publishing reports for stakeholders, and developing new ways to provide public education on political issues.

Public policy professor teaching

Doctorate Degree Graduates

A doctorate degree is typically the highest level of education attainable in public policy, and can open the door to several further roles, including:

1. Managing Director

The role of a managing director involves overseeing an organization’s general operations. They work on developing strategies for business growth, meet with company representatives and stakeholders, and ensure that the business operations are in support of the overarching goals of the company.

2. Sociologist

A sociologist works in a role where they are mainly responsible for researching various aspects of social interactions and human behavior. They do this through a variety of ways including conducting surveys, focus groups and interviews, analyzing data, making observations, and then write reports based on what they find. Sociologists may also put the data that they collect to use in testing sociological theories and may write and public research papers that are used by other professionals in the industry.

3. University Professor

A professor of public policy is mainly responsible for instructing students in public policy and related topics. The role involves planning lectures, developing the curriculum, overseeing exams, and offering advice and guidance to students. Along with the educational side of this role, many public professors are also researchers in their chosen field.

Public policy is a wide-reaching career path with many different roles available in various industries and sectors. A career in public policy may be the ideal choice for you if you are interested in a career where you can influence change and make a positive difference.


How to Optimize Your CRM for Winning More Customers



A CRM, or Customer Relationship Management tool, is an all-embracing software solution used to manage relationships and interactions with partners, potential customers, and existing customers. CRM solutions like is a useful tool that can streamline the operations and functions of teams in different departments of an organization, like business development, marketing, or sales. All the important information required for the company, like client data, leads, sales opportunities, and marketing campaigns, can be stored and managed centrally with the help of CRM.

Optimizing CRM adds enormous value to the business process. It will enable businesses to strengthen their client relationships, simplify processes, and improve sales and profits.

Businessman using CRM

There are several ways to optimize your CRM to win more customers. Some of them include as follow.

Automate The Basic and Straightforward Tasks

Automating daily and repetitive tasks is an important step toward improving the efficiency of your business processes. Many businesses mention a shortage of resources and time as the reason for not automating such repetitive tasks. But this is a real mistake business owners are making in this digital age.

Automation helps businesses improve customer traction. It also gives companies the capability to inspect the intricate journey towards real customer-centricity. This process might feel a bit overwhelming for budding businesses with limited experience in CRM.

CRM automation can be used to eliminate repetitive and time-consuming functions like sending newsletter subscriptions, promotion offers, follow-up emails, and other marketing efforts. This will reduce the need to write the same response repeatedly while engaging customers. It is also possible to automate sales processes like call scheduling. All of this will save precious time for team members that can be diverted to more crucial tasks, increasing productivity and boosting business growth.

Understand from Analytics

Another important feature of CRM that makes it attractive is its ability to analyze consumer behavior and trends. Not only does CRM perform the analytics, but all the data is stored in one place, making it easily accessible. This will enable companies to easily access and understand the behavior of clients and push the products and services to suit those trends.

When one marketing strategy becomes successful, businesses should analyze the reason for its success and model the next campaign similar to it.

Having a better understanding of CRM analytics will help companies and their different managerial teams come up with the best marketing strategies and solutions. All the marketing and sales strategies should be designed based on client data to yield maximum results. When the sales team is aware of the location and inclination of the customer, the salesperson can come up with novel strategies to make a targeted sales pitch. It will also improve the chances of getting a good deal. Thus, carefully learning and understanding analytics is crucial for the growth of a company.

Business team using CRM solutions

Establish and Maintain The Portfolio of Profitable Customers

CRM helps to collect and organize all the client data in one place. The advantage of this feature is that it will enable teams and customer service agents to access how a particular issue or client was handled in a previous similar scenario. This will help the agents communicate effectively in the said scenario and provide consistent customer service by predicting the wishes of clients based on previous responses.

CRM can be used efficiently for helping agents deal with new customers or specific interactions. Specific guidelines or playbooks can be created based on earlier interactions. This will allow the customers to have an idea about what to expect, and they will be happier with the service provided.

You can also prioritize the queries and issues of the most profitable customers and get them handled by the right agent. This does not mean you should delay the issues of other customers. The issues requiring urgent attention should be prioritized above everything else.

Make CRM The Core of your Company’s Marketing Strategy

It is beneficial for businesses to develop their marketing strategies and campaigns based on CRM intelligence. CRM intelligence provides critical insights into marketing, like the best technique to approach a specific market or the most successful tactic for a particular service. All of these crucial insights will assist businesses in developing campaigns that will result in agile and tactile business practices and corresponding business growth.

Long-lasting relationships can be made with customers when you give them what they want and approach them the way they desire. CRM will assist you in determining the most interactive and emerging market, the most desired products and services, and the channel receiving the most traffic.

Work with CRM system

Integrate CRM With Other Tools

Once you invest in CRM, you should remember to integrate it with other tools and internal systems used in your business processes. CRM can be integrated with enterprise resource planning systems (ERPs) to create an automated inquiry management system that is fully developed and includes all client information.

For social media listening, your CRM should also be connected to all social media accounts of your company, like LinkedIn, Twitter, or Facebook. This will keep you up to date on important topics like emerging trends, the reputation of your brand, and the impact of your marketing campaigns. All this information can be used to create better strategies for your next marketing campaign.

Update Customer Data

CRM is most effective when the data is up-to-date. Your marketing and sales strategy will only be effective if it is developed using the latest client data, like changes in preferences, location, or contact method. By designing strategies based on the changing needs and desires of the customer, your relationship with them will continuously evolve and become stronger.

Customize CRM

CRM is like the real face of your company or support team. This system plays a great role in shaping the opinion of the customer about your company. You should use CRM to create a positive and lifelong impact on your customers. Remember to meet the expectations of your clients and provide a cohesive and consistent service. Also, give focus on providing a seamless customer experience.



CRM is an invaluable tool that can be used for the overall development of the business. By properly optimizing it, you can get more customers and generate higher profits.

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Solo Traveler to Solo Entrepreneur



I became a solo traveler to a solo entrepreneur through my love for travel.

I started traveling around 10 years ago and lived to explore the world. I was constantly trying to find packaged adventures that offered to explore off-the-beaten-path corners of the earth, but was unable to find anything. I became tired of the cookie cutter tour companies that only highlighted the touristy attractions and popular regions. Eventually, I gave up trying and decided to create my own trips. I figured if I was looking for adventures like this, then other travelers would too.

Kate, BornWild Travel Adventures

photo credit: BornWild

After 4 years of traveling solo, I combined my passion for travel and wild animal conservation and decided to start my own adventure travel company – BornWild.

I began selling unique day trips for the first two years of business which went relatively well, however profits were low. To succeed at making a business out of day trips alone, you would have to be selling the majority of weekdays and dedicate much labor to make an honest living.

Multi-day trips is where the vast majority of profit can be made so I focused into this sector and it has really paid off.

Entering into the adventure travel industry world is no easy task. If you are a solo entrepreneur that has a travel start-up, you have your work cut out.

Kate, BornWild Travel Adventures

What I found most challenging is that consumers are parting with much more money and tend to be very careful before purchasing. It takes someone a lot more thinking time and deliberation before buying a trip, than it does to buy an item of clothing for example. Selling travel requires trust built between consumer and business and it’s essential for the business to have a great reputation too.

The travel industry isn’t overcrowded but there is a lot of choice so it requires work and the right marketing techniques to be seen by the right buyers.

Having a socially conscious angle on your business also helps too. From a business perspective, travelers are becoming more proactive in traveling consciously and impacting the planet positively. Consumers are gravitating towards eco-friendly, sustainable and conservation based trips and adventures. It’s a preference that has become highly favored in today’s world.

Being socially committed not only gives your brand kudos and credibility but it helps people see how dedicated you are to doing good.

We have just devised an African Lion Safari which is a groundbreaking adventure that bridges adventure travel with lion conservation. It exposes travelers to resources and experiences you will only encounter through this adventure. It’s the only adventure like this on the market and sets us apart from other companies.

African Lion Safari

photo credit: Roya Ann Miller / BornWild

Digital marketing is key when getting your business off the ground. I taught myself how to become a digital marketing expert and it’s paid off in many ways. I have tried numerous marketing tactics when it comes to selling travel, from magazine articles to ads, to cross marketing, to social media, facebook live etc. I’ve found that the most effective way is to master the world of SEO so that you can start ranking on google and be visible when consumers are searching for an adventure. The goal is to capture people as they are ready to buy a trip and that’s what’s so powerful when you crack digital marketing.

My advice to all new entrepreneurs in travel is to learn to master SEO and become a digital marketing expert so you become a pro at the very beginning. This will set you up for success from the offset and be extremely beneficial to getting your business off the ground as well as throughout your whole business journey.

Tips on starting your own travel business:

  1. Find a niche that isn’t already being done
  2. Become a digital marketing expert
  3. Post, post, post to rank on google using SEO
  4. Concentrate in on where your buyers are coming from
  5. Pinpoint what search terms consumers are using when they are poised to buy and start ranking for these search terms.
  6. Don’t waste time on marketing avenues that don’t work, plug away at avenues that do.
  7. Cross marketing with other companies really helps
  8. Make sure your customer service is 5-star and that you gain great reviews
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Running a Business in the Metaverse: Virtual Services, For the Win



The metaverse is a network of the 3D world that can be accessed using a virtual reality headset. It is a virtual universe that offers unlimited possibilities. It is estimated that the metaverse would be an $800 million market by 2024. It is no wonder that top corporations are investing in it.

A question arises on how you can run a business in the metaverse. Virtual workplaces are already a reality, thanks to remote work. Virtual services such as virtual reception – including phone answering – like those provided by can be offered as a precursor to running a business in the Metaverse.

Using VR givng presentation to clients
photo credit: Tima Miroshnichenko / Pexels

Remote Work and Virtual Services

Remote work is a powerful concept that allows people to work from anywhere. They no longer need to be physically present at an office to work. They can work from home or anywhere else. A question that arises is – what about a virtual office?

At present, virtual workers work from some corner of the home. This may even change from time to time. The metaverse now makes it possible to have an infinite office that has 3 types of virtual workspaces.

1. Private virtual office

With virtual reality headsets on, you can enter your private virtual office where you do your work. You can define your virtual surrounding while being able to see the physical world around you. Productivity tools can be used directly from the virtual office.

Let’s assume you need to attend a virtual meeting. With a tap of the screen, you can open the virtual meeting app and continue the meeting from your virtual office. This is the reality that seeks to transform the way we work.

2. Shared workspace

Some people find it difficult to remote work because they prefer working in a shared space with others. A close and collaborative shared workspace allows for greater productivity. Now, this can be done virtually using a shared virtual place. You can enter the shared space as a virtual avatar.

Sit in your own private office and be part of the shared workspace with others. Interact with them through your VR headset and watch the interaction in the virtual world. This is a great way to simulate an office space and ensure the best collaborative efforts.

3. The infinite office

The infinite office is a virtual office concept that goes to the next level. It takes your office just about anywhere, be it your home or even in a park. Just imagine, you are sitting on a park bench soaking in the warm sun and enjoying the pleasant weather. If you have a meeting scheduled in 5 minutes, you can continue it from the park.

All you need to do is use the VR headset to activate your virtual workspace right in front of you. You don’t even need a keyboard or a screen. You can activate work apps using a gesture. The infinite office is at a conceptual stage. But it won’t be long before it becomes a reality. When it does happen, it will truly take the world of work by storm. Working in the metaverse will become a reality.

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Working in The Virtual World

The virtual world allows you to create a virtual avatar of yourself. Your virtual avatar will work in the shared space with others. An entire office can be created in the virtual world. This will allow you to get the best benefits of a virtual workplace with a real workplace. In fact, this has already become a reality.

A Korean company Zigbang has created a VR office spanning 30 floors and the avatars of employees can move around the office. As they encounter other avatars, their mike would be activated. They can then have a real conversation through the virtual world. This can make communication more effective. This was a drawback in remote working and with virtual communication enabled, the virtual workplace would be more effective.

Young people in workplaces would enjoy creating virtual avatars of themselves. They can allow their creativity to run amuck as they create an avatar of themselves. They can make the avatar look how they want it to be.

How Would The Metaverse be?

The metaverse is different from VR (Virtual Reality) and AR (Augmented Reality). There would be many changes that are significant. Devices like the mouse and keyboard would no longer be needed. Voice would be the main way in which communication happens. Voice instructions would help operate the metaverse.

The main feature of the metaverse is the use of virtual assistants. Virtual assistants would play an important role in the metaverse. Their primary interface would be a voice and not commands typed on the keyboard. People are ready to use voice today, thanks to Siri and Alexa. Voice commands are used on mobile phones and computers.

Voice search has become popular on Google with many people preferring speaking to Google rather than typing. Smart speakers have today become the norm. It is estimated that the smart speaker market would be worth more than $61 billion by 2024. The integration of smart speakers with Artificial Intelligence is making virtual assistants more useful.

Work in the metaverse
photo credit: Kampus Production / Pexels


In the virtual world of business, people would talk to virtual assistants using voice. Virtual assistants would have a major role to play in all types of businesses going forward.

It would be important to understand who or what a virtual assistant would be in the metaverse. A virtual assistant can be a software program or can even be a person who helps and guides users in the metaverse. The program can be AI-powered. When real people function as virtual assistants, they would be those who are skilled or specialized in the area of work.

The virtual assistant can make your life easy in the metaverse. They can help you keep track of your work and remind you of the things to do. They can even help you in your personal life with cooking, fitness tips, and even dating advice. Virtual personal trainers and virtual child care providers would be available to help you in the metaverse. These virtual assistants will be able to do more in the virtual world than in the real world.

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